Public Relations Skill Тест

Which of the following best describes the political tactic known as 'defining one's opponent'?
Same as defying one's opponent.
A tactic often used in political campaigns to define and thereby undermine one's political adversary.
Creating an imaginary opponent and then to knock down and defeat him, like a straw man.
Turning on and betraying one's former allies in order to be the sole competitor in a certain field.

In Public Relations, what does 'sexed up' mean?
It refers to making something appear more attractive than it really is, a modern update to the phrase 'hyped up'
Dressed smartly to impress.
An honest account of an event, prepared for a news or Public Relations broadcast
All of the above

Which of the following best describes 'crisis communications'?
The inability or unwillingness of large companies to communicate in the middle of a crisis.
A sub-specialty of the Public Relations industry that is designed to protect an individual or organization from a public challenge to their reputation.
The release to the media of detrimental information when a company is facing bankruptcy. Internal politics at a Public Relations firm.

Which of the following phrases refers to an equivocal denial made by an official to the press, often relating to an incident that is actually true.
Non-denial denial
Double cross
Non-apology apology
Non-confession confession
None of the above

What does 'messageword' refer to?
Same as Instant Messaging
Same as e-mail
Same as Skype
A combination of phone calls, Instant Messaging and Skype, but not e-mail
A strategy whereby online advertising networks are used to distribute messages instead of traditional ads - e.g. Google's 'Adwords.'

What is meant by 'integrated marketing communications'?
Combining the video game, music and home video entertainment systems in one package
An approach to brand communications where the different modes work together to create a seamless experience for the customer and are presented with a similar tone and style that reinforces the brand's core message.
Disparate marketing groups talking to each other, often at boardroom meetings
A system whereby the CEOs of multi-national companies join an exclusive and secretive club, similar to the Freemasons

What are 'demographics'?
Graphs used to chart company clients and how often the employees log-in to certain websites.
Descriptive classifications of consumers, such as their age, sex, income, education, size of household, etc.
Predictive models used to give an impression of company profits over a future period of time.
Specialist consultants brought in from the outside to affect company policy and save money.
All of the above

An abbreviation often used in online content, what does 'marcom' mean?
Market Company
Market Cooperative
Macaroni and cheese
Marketing Company
Marketing Communications

Which of the following terms is used to refer to a rhetorical attempt to generate misdeeds or cover up an incident within a group?
A cartload of oranges.
A tricky trickster on the loose.
Wagging  the dog.
Taking it on the run.
A few bad apples, or a bad apples excuse.

What is the name given to a promotion that is intended to arouse interest in the main campaign which follows.
Wonder-intro
Highlight
Teaser
Manifest destiny
None of the above

Which of the following is the best definition of an expert who specializes in gaining influence within an organization?
Soft sell man Compliance professional
Big-time pro
Solo operating expert
All of the above

Which of the following terms for boosting public opinion is frequently used to enhance web page accessibility?
Search engine optimization
Search engine fixing
Professional web blogging
Multi-linking
None of the above

What is the name given to the multiple media relating to different market sectors?
Vertical media
Horizontal media
Diagonal media
Mega media
All of the above

Which of the following terms refers to a tactical relationship adopted by opposing organizations in which both sides benefit by attacking each other?
Dissuading adversaries
Defining your opponent
Win-win relationship
Equal footing bartering
Promoting adversaries

What is the name given to advertising aimed directly at other businesses rather than at consumers.
Business-to-business advertising
Company-to-business advertising
Man-to-man advertising
Private-to-private advertising
Public-to-public advertising

Which of the following terms refers to a kind of deception associated with intelligence agencies - establishing credibility for the source disclosing the information but in actuality withholding key facts and protecting a more serious crime.
Secret base
Limited hangout
Cool-off point
Safe house
All of the above

What is a 'press pack/kit'?
Free giveaway presents to the press at the end of the year, frequently toy versions of a company's products.
The bags brought by individual members of the press to interviews. A collection of lost at a Public Relations firm.
The precise folding of articles for archiving.
A branded pack handed out to the media by an organization, usually containing background information, photographs, news releases etc.

Name the 4 Ps of the 'marketing mix', used online as well as in print.
Product, Price, Place (i.e. distribution) and Promotion.
Pride, Place, Pride, Power
Points, Prizes, Perks, People
Price, Place (i.e. distribution), Promotion, People
None of the above

What is the more common phrase used to describe a product or service given by a sales person to consumers to induce them to listen to a sales pitch?
Door-breaker
Door-jammer
Door-opener
Foot in the door

What is a 'transcript'?
A document that explains tax returns for the fiscal year.
A complete written text of what someone said - an accurate written version of the spoken word.
A printing technique using monotone colors.
A double side 4-color advertisement ordered by special request.
Both c and d

During the management of a PR campaign, what does the term 'duplicated audience' mean?
The immediate audience focus of the campaign.
The long-term audience focus of the campaign.
An audience that has two sets of data attached to it, often for two different markets or countries.
The overlapping selection of a target audience that is reached by more than one media vehicle.
None of the above

What does 'column inch' refer to?
The distance between tables at a press conference.
The gap on the London underground that is commonly referred to with the phrase 'mind the gap.'
A description of a Public Relations technique where columns dominate the front of buildings to give the impression of wealth creation, success and status.
A common unit of measure by newspapers, whereby ad space is purchased by the width, in columns, and the depth, in inches.

What is an 'elevator pitch'?
A pitch that only ever takes place inside, often in an actual elevator.
A short presentation of a recommended Public Relations campaign, of limited time span (as though it could take place in a single elevator ride).
The seating arrangements, often open-planned desks, at a city-style Public Relations company.
A voice-recording gadget used in the elevators of high-end PR companies.
Both a and d

What is a 'sound bite'?
A tiny burst of sound similar to a squeak, and always less than one second long.
The dialogue that appears in translation below various visual media.
The words that appear on a marketing cue card.
A short phrase or sentence that captures the heart of what the speaker is trying to say, if a little generalized.

Which of the following is the best definition of 'exposure'?
The extent to which a target audience is aware of a person, event or company whose profile has been enhanced by a Public Relations company.
The amount of advertising space on the front page of broadsheet newspapers.
The opposite of a 'cover-up.'
The extent to which the accounts of a Public Relations firm are released within the public sphere for general inspection.

What does 'serif type' refer to?
The long, wavy tails found at the ends of most typefaces.
A specific kind of print format, commonly used in tabloid newspaper printing.
The same as 'sans serif' style.
The short, decorative cross-lines or tails found at the ends of main strokes in some typefaces, such as Roman lettering.

What is 'e-consultancy'?
The online term for the technical advice offered to clients and businesses to improve their Public Relations image, strategy and online presence.
Regular consultancy work, with some internet training as a supplementary option.
Online consultancy work at double the rate of regular consultancy.
Online consultancy work at half the rate of regular consultancy.

Which of the following terms refers to formal Public Relations campaigns, often in politics, which aim to give the impression of being spontaneous 'grassroots' movements?
Astroturfing
Safebreaking
Wave managing
Cresting
Root level marketing

What is 'copy'?
The text created by a consultancy and intended for a press release, journal or newspaper article.
A photocopy that appears twice as clear as the original, but only half as clear when copied twice.
A copycat — someone at work who is trying to influence the company so they can acquire your job
A carbon copy, often of fossils found at the sites of old Public Relations companies.

What term refers to the process of managing Public Relations problems usually by using technology to electronically automate the process.
Computer pyrotechnics
Financial wizardry
Digital restructuring
Issue management
All of the above

Which of the following phrases represents an artificial or manufactured controversy, often developed by an interest group rather than from a broad range of opinion.
Fake campaign
Advertising heist
Pseudo-management ploy
Artificial controversy
None of the above

What kind of journalism downplays legitimate news in favour of more eye-catching headlines that sell newspapers?
Blue journalism
Black journalism
White journalism
Yellow journalism
Polka dot journalism

Name the technique used in the radio industry that uses highly descriptive words to evoke images so the listener feels he or she is directly part of the scene.
Line drawing
Image crystallization
Sound carving
Word painting
Imagizing

What does 'coolhunting' refer to?
A management technique in which Public Relations professionals 'hunt' for their own egos in a common Christmas party-game, adopted from law and accounting professionals.
The low temperatures used by companies that manufacture CDs and DVDs and often employ important Public Relations firms.
Aspiring media professionals who want to become celebrities — hunting for 'cool.'
A new breed of marketing professionals who predict new cultural trends.

What is an 'infomercial'?
A cross between a commercial and a press conference.
The line of inquiry pursued by journalists that is not quite self-promotion and not quite information dissemination.
A kind of internet company promotional strategy.
A commercial that is similar in appearance to a news program, talk show, or other non-advertising program content.

Which of the following is the best definition of 'crisis management'?
Creating a management team that might bring about a crisis.
Avoiding any internal problems by deferring a crisis.
a and b
Generating a communications plan that can be put into action when something goes wrong for a company.
All of the above

What are 'web bridges'?
Electronic bridges built by online 'robots' or 'spiders' to externally link web pages.
The virtual representation of the road infrastructure of a given country.
Online commentators with ties to security services who participate in internet forums and blogs as a way to promote disinformation.
A kind of online gambling card game with at least 6 players.

What is a 'viral campaign'?
A marketing campaign gone bad or sour after the initial novelty wears off in the public imagination.
An advertising campaign infected by internal sabotage by certain individuals from rival companies.
A highly orchestrated and therefore highly successful self-promotional event.
A communications campaign designed to exploit the internet as a means of sending rapid messages — each user sending a message on to multiple other users.

Which of the following is a term for PR commercials that often employ graphic imagery and slogans in order to appeal to readers?
Media cluster
Shockvertising
Money-making PR
Vertical marketing
None of the above

What does it mean when a newspaper or magazine copy or a picture is said to 'bleed'?
The copy or picture extends — seemingly 'bleeds' - beyond the normal margin of a printed page, often all the way to the edge.
The colors all blue together, often resulting in a clear white effect.
The copy is black and white only.
The copy is a mixture of black and white, and two other colors, such as red and green.

What is an 'electric spectacular'?
Outdoor signs or billboards composed largely of lighting or other electrical components.
A car roadshow with the fastest cars on the market, an event covered by all the major newspapers.
A hot-air balloon.
An advertising technique where colored lights are given away free on the covers of magazines and newspapers.

What is 'sound science'?
The science of sound waves, their creation and manipulation.
The same as smart science, but always presented to the public by a celebrity.
Dumb science mixed with a touch of smart science.
Science that is deemed generally trustworthy by both experts and a great proportion of the population, but a slightly dumbed down accessible and promotable version of this same science.

In PR terms, what is 'full service'?
In-house design plus corporate marketing techniques.
A one-stop PR shop incorporating clients from different industry sectors, and offering a range of PR services.
Partial service extended over a long period of time.
A freelance rate in which the employee works full-time, but remotely, outside the office.

What is an edition of a newspaper called that is available earlier than other editions?
Early edition
Bulldog edition
Breakfast paper
Sunrise newspaper
All of the above

What is a 'pseudo-event'?
An event promoted online, existing only in a virtual world.
A part-time event, often taking place at lunchtimes only.
An event or activity that exists for the sole purpose of garnering media publicity, serving little to no function connected to real life.
An event attended by celebrities only, especially in the film world.

What is the term given to a type of marketing in which a company adapts itself to uncontrollable factors within the industry?
Macromarketing
Micromarketing
Mega-marketing
Mission-marketing

What is 'corporate pathos'?
When a company gives 25% of its annual revenue to charity.
The CEO crying and begging forgiveness on national television, especially at Christmas.
A term used to define the employment of emotional engagement techniques to shape and alter the public's perspection of a given company.
When a company goes into either self-regulated liquidation or forced bankruptcy.

Which of the following is the best definition of 'brainstorming'?
The headache brought about by high profile Public Relations management strategies.
The IQ level of company employees when plotted on a comparative graph.
The creative process of group-thinking designed to stimulate new ideas on a given challenge or subject.
The decision to join a rival company for a group bonding exercise, such as a business team-building excursion.

What is a 'publicity stunt'?
Part-time work in the film industry as stuntmen by Public Relations employees.
A marketing ploy that deceives the public but results in a great many extra sales.
A planned event designed to draw the public's attention to a particular cause or campaign.
An individual who controls spin at a Public Relations firm.

Which of the following is the best definition of a 'brief'?
A client's instructions delivered to a consultancy, or directions communicated within a PR agency.
A short memo always distributed internally.
A brief radio or television slot as part of Public Relations promotion for a company.
A dress-down day at work, or the so-called 'Hawaiian Shirt Day' or 'Mufti Day.'

What is a story called in which the events are violently inflated to suggest the violation of a given set of assumed relationships, with the effect of reinstating the boundaries of those relationships?
Homemade video
Atrocity story
Caricature tale
Main news item
All of the above

What is the term used to describe consumers' perceptions that they are being misled by a company with regard to the environment?
Greenpeace
Greenwash
Whitewash
Green Deception
Green Goblin

What is 'eye tracking'?
The eye examinations may PR companies buy for their employees.
A research technique that examines what part of an advertisement consumers look at, by tracking the changing patterns of their eye movements.
The PR technique of using highly colorful commercials to keep viewers interested and so more likely to buy.
The PR technique of using fast visuals to keep viewers interested and so more likely to buy.
A machine that ensures all lines on a print advertisements are straight - which the naked eye cannot tell.

What is 'lobbying'?
Hanging out in the lobby of the Willard Hotel in Washington, DC.
Writing content for online home-shopping websites.
Running for local election
Impressing politicians and political groups with one's cause, as a means of influencing legislation.
All of the above

What is 'classified advertising'?
The same as classy advertising.
Advertising on the back page of mainstream newspapers, both broadsheets and tabloids.
Print advertising that is limited to certain specialized goods and services, and also usually limited in size and content.
Always advertisements in the 'lonely hearts' sections of both newspapers and magazines.

What is a 'boiler plate' text?
A text shaped like a plate (circular).
A text frequently written out-of-house but edited in-house.
A text manufactured using a special boiler-cooling method, so the paper is extra durable (and used as pamphlets and brochures).
A template text that is often reused without being altered (such as a press release).

Which of the following is the best description of 'managing the news'?
Influencing the presentation of information in the news media, often with a negative spin.
Deciding on the schedule of programs and their transmission order.
Appointing a hierarchy of news presenters.
Planning untrue stories and broadcasting them as though they were true.

What does the 'editorial leader' or 'leading article' of a UK or US newspaper or magazine commonly express?
Unhappiness
The opinion of everyone at the newspaper.
The national feeling or zeitgeist.
The opinion of the editor, editorial board, or publisher.
All of the above

What is 'spin' exactly?
The rotation of company policy that often involves a high turnover of personnel.
The circular motion made by the revolving door at a Public Relations company's corporate headquarters.
The representation of an event so that the audience believes the opposite is true, often with malicious intent, and intending to willfully deceive.
The representation of an event or series of events to persuade public opinion to become for or against a certain organization or individual — not malicious, but often without real, factual or moral justification.

What is the phrase used to describe the top portion of a newspaper that often positions a news article in a prominent position?
Below the lip
Above the fold
At the corner
Tucked up
Central header

What is a 'press release'?
A print or online communication sent to news media, also known as a news release.
Specifically an online briefing
A speech made by a company spokesman, especially at a time of crisis.
When the press are released from the briefing room after photographs have been taken.

What is a 'cue sheet'?
The tip right at the end of a snooker cue, for snooker, a game often played at lunchtimes at Public Relations firms.
The television monitor from which lines are read during press conferences.
A special type of card-like printing paper.
Briefing notes, often to help the company spokesman prepare for an interview with a journalist on a prepared subject.

What is the term used to describe the relationship between a change in an advertising budget and the resultant change in product sales?
Ad. fix
Advertising elasticity
Marketing ploy
Advertising inflation
Downsizing

What is the name given to a short song, usually mentioning a brand or product benefit, used in a commercial?
Lullaby
Trick
Teaser
Jingle
None of the above

What is a 'non-apology apology' and why is it clever - but morally dubious - as a marketing tool?
It's a statement in the form of an apology that is nothing of the sort, a common gambit in politics and Public Relations.
A sincere and heartfelt company apology.
A turning point in a war of words, when one side backs down a little.
A cunning trick to viciously undermine an opponent, and dissolve their business dealings.

What does 'militainment' mean when representing the military to the general population?
Hyper-military
Part militia, part standing army
A portmanteau of "Military" and "entertainment." It is defined as either entertainment featuring and celebrating the military, or controlled by the military.
A key word of marketing-speak whereby military personnel are seen to entertain their own soldiers to boost morale.

What are 'seasonal ratings adjustments'?
Matching the winter to the summer rating exactly.
In broadcast media, rating modifications that reflect changes in the season, e.g. weather and holidays.
Hiding the ratings results from the media from one season to the next.
Doubling TV ratings by estimating the number of people at a residence.

What is the name of the technique of using low pressure tactics in commercials and advertising in order to make a sale?
Market targeting
Base rate
Soft sell
Values and Lifestyle Research (VALS)
Hard sell

What is an 'exclusive'?
A one-off TV appearance presented by a celebrity.
Very expensive online shopping goods.
A news story offered by a PR practitioner to a single newspaper title, radio, TV station or website.
A division within a Public Relations company responsible for managing all the other divisions.

What is the name given to an advertisement that has the appearance of a news article or editorial (in a print publication)?
Advert-mania
Local feature
Classified ad.
Front-page banner
Advertorial

Who are the 'sector/trade press'?
The newspapers and magazines read by the general population.
The media relevant to specific audiences, such as special interest magazines, trade journals etc.
Private collectible newspapers often archived at universities and museums.
Heads of the top five media corporations in a given country.

When printing copy, what does an 'em' refer to?
A unit of type measurement, based on the 'M' character, denoting the width of a single printed character.
A double space between words.
The space between sentences, longer than the space between characters.
Twice the width of an 'N' space.

Name the well-known phrase used as a response to inquiries which the respondent does not wish to answer, often to avoid being Quoted in print.
No way
No buts
But maybe
No comment
Yes man

What is 'airbrushing' and when is it usually employed?
A cleaning technique employed at Public Relations firms, whereby the floor is airbrushed a shiny white color.
An artist's technique for creating a smooth gradation of color, often used to cover physical imperfections in a photograph.
Skipping over certain paragraphs when reading from an autocue.
A technique of mass e-mailing but in a way that hides the recipients' e-mail addresses from one another.

What is 'e-PR'?
Using Public Relations techniques in an online environment.
Public Relations online.
e-PR involves using the internet and new technologies (such as IM or Skype) to communicate with stakeholders.
Same as online-PR.
All of the above

Name the world's largest independent Public Relations firm from the list below.
Wal-Mart
Edelman
Woolworth's
Reuters
b and d

What is 'media spin'?
An act of self-promotion on television or radio where personal credentials are exaggerated.
The same as playing the blame game through the media.
The term used to describe media re-interpretation of events, often to the point where the angle or meaning of a story is changed.
A kind of PR campaign where the media presents a verifiable version of events that is simple and focused
None of the above

What is 'narrowcasting'?
Using a traditional, narrow TV set rather than a flatscreen.
Broadcasting one TV or internet signal all over a houses to multiple TVs or computers.
A kind of fishing technique similar to fly fishing — a frequent getaway for Public Relations executives.
Using a specific broadcast medium to appeal to audiences with special interests.

What is an 'embargo'?
A restriction on international border imports
A Public Relations website where marketing information can be sourced and downloaded.
A media delay in reporting a significant event due to a technical hitch.
A warning to the media not to publish a news item until the date specified on the release.
None of the above

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